Surgery for flexible flatfoot is geared to towards patients who have failed conservative treatment. 1 The purpose of any surgical intervention is to improve the overall foot alignment and reduce or eliminate pain. A variety of surgical techniques and procedures are used to reconstruct a flatfoot, including tendon lengthening, tendon augmentation, bone supporting implants (arthroereisis device), bone cuts (osteotomies), and/or bone fusions. DiNucci K, Christensen JC. Calcaneocuboid joint contact with Evans calcaneal osteotomy. Presented at annual meeting of American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, San Francisco, March 1995. Sep 08, 2010 By Temesha Aldridge Photo Caption Normal foot arches Photo Credit ballerina feet 2 image by jimcox40 from Fotolia.com The plethora of potential causes of PFPS is quite bewildering. There seems little consensus by medical experts as to the causes of PFPS and therefore the treatments prescribed are even more numerous. In a recent blog on a website of a particular medical profession as many as thirty-four different treatments were prescribed for PFPS. In other medical professions there may well be just as many treatments prescribed. If the answer to some or all of these questions is yes then there may well be a single cause and therefore a simple answer! Orthostatic hypotension is a drop in blood pressure that occurs when the person stands up. The American Academy of Neurology defines orthostatic hypotension as in decrease of at least 20 mm in systolic blood pressure or 10 mm in diastolic blood pressure within a few minutes of standing. The condition is not a disease but a symptom caused from another condition. Orthostatic hypotension occurs in all age groups but is most common in the elderly. Left upper quad abdominal pain refers to the area to the left of an invisible line drawn from the left quad to the navel. Pains in the area can be caused by very specific issues. Surgery is very rarely recommended for treatment of congenital pes planus. If needed, the aim of surgery would be to realign bones and joints and reinforce tendons. The foot would be immobilized in a cast after such a surgery, and a lengthy period of rehabilitation would follow. Flat feet may never require any treatment, according to Children's Memorial Hospital. In some cases, stretching and strengthening exercises can help to decrease the rigidness of your flat feet. You can also have surgery to correct this condition. To address flat feet, a surgeon places an implant in your foot to raise its arch. This surgery is not recommended for children and adolescents. The pictures below correspond to the same feet as above but no weight is put on it and you can visibly observe the arch. This is called a flexible flatfoot. If the child doesn't complain of pain, it is ok but if pain develops or there is discomfort during any activities, it is highly recommended that you see a doctor and would most likely recommend you to a physical therapist. Flat foot can also be congenital or rigid which is rare. Tip-toeing while walking and skipping rope also helps form a natural arch for older kids, if they are already physically able to do so.