According to the NHS website, both chiropodists and podiatrists are qualified to diagnose and treat abnormalities of the lower limb, as well as give advice on the prevention of foot problems and foot care. Chiropodists are available at The Scholl Total Footcare Centre, where they diagnose and treat every foot problem imaginable. Tonic Health on Commercial Street has a podiatry clinic, as does Medicalternative. The Bruntsfield Chiropody, A1 Chiropody and the Brougham Foot Clinic are all popular clinics too. However, once any foot problems are solved, it's time to visit a pedicurist - the experts of the beauty world at keeping feet in top condition. After arthrodesis, you will not be able to move your big toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint (the base of the big toe). Excision (Keller's) arthroplasty An excision arthroplasty involves cutting out the bunion and part of the bone of the joint at the base of the big toe. This creates a false joint that later heals when scar tissue forms. The procedure involves pinning the joint in place with wires, which will be removed around three weeks after surgery is carried out. An excision arthroplasty can only be used in certain circumstances, and is usually reserved for severe, troublesome bunions in very elderly people. Minimally invasive bunion surgery Corns and calluses are protective layers of compacted, dead skin cells. They are caused by repeated friction and pressure from skin rubbing against bony areas or against an irregularity in a shoe. Corns ordinarily form on the toes and calluses on the soles of the feet. The friction and pressure can burn or otherwise be painful and may be relieved by moleskin or padding on the affected areas. Never cut corns or calluses with any instrument, and never apply home remedies, except under a podiatrist's instructions. The main goal of early treatment is to relieve pressure on the bunion and smaller toes, and to diminish the progression of joint deformities. I can't ever sit with my legs crossed, or spend too long sitting down, to prevent varicose veins or cellulite. If I've been sitting down for more than an hour or so, I have to get up and have a walk around. My friends are used to me not being able to do things and go out because I have to stay in and look after my legs sometimes.' Ms Howorth started working as a foot and leg model after being scouted by a friend who worked as a photographer in her teens. I used to love wearing high heels and never thought I would have a problem. I don't know if that is the cause of my bunions, but know it certainly doesn't help them. The gel pads seem to be the most comfortable and give the most relief. They are a bit bulky with dress shoes, but I have been trying not to wear them as often. Another thing I like about the gel pads I bought is that they are clear. I can wear them with sandals and ballet flats and they are not noticeable.